Friday, 28 October 2011

Closed, On-land Fish Farm Systems - Post being developed - Updated Dec 2, 2011

6.Read this report first: Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture: This report clearly lays out the nuts and bolts of building on-land, closed aquaculture systems that make more money than in-ocean, open systems.

1. Twenty Seven different systems. David Suzuki et al.


3. Prices systems

4. This is a 96 page abstract of aquaculture research in Canada - also the CIMTAN project. Excellent for giving you an overview:

5. GAPI - index for evaluating aquaculture operations. John Volpi:

7. This is the technical papers on the Namgis First Nation on-land, closed, RAS system for raising salmon:

FISH FARM MYTHS - A Growing List - Updated Nov 21, 2011

1. Fish farms say they are producing fish to feed a hungry world. WRONG. They are producing fish for the first world countries that can afford to buy them. In 2004, the Canadian and Norwegian bare cost to produce a kg of farmed salmon was, respectively: $2.60 and $2.30. Then you add transportation per kg: Chile, for example, was $1.80, just to the US, and Norway is excluded from the US market due to high tariffs (26.7%).

Total cost per kg in CDN, NWY, CL: $4.25; $5.70; and, $3.75.
The hungry countries of the third world cannot afford these prices.

Sales prices for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are expected to be depressed: To Come.

2. Fish farms need to be in the ocean. WRONG. I have a list of 33 mostly-closed, on-land, many recirulating systems.
Just ask for it.

One facility is a research unit for 200 on-land systems. In the States there is a recirculating system, on-land association, and fish are grown on land around the world. Fish have been grown on land since the sixth century BC.

Norwegian derivative fish farms are old-tech systems that should have been retired long ago. The rest of the world has moved on to sustainable on-land facilities. This is the product retailers and consumers want now.

The Netherlands is 100% closed systems as their laws require that. So should other countries. See:

And the CAAR site has very good, very current presentations on closed systems:

3. Fish farming on land costs too much to be competitive. WRONG. The best technical report on this subject, that details down to the nuts and bolts of on-land fish farms is this: Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture:

4. Closed Container fish farms are uneconomical. WRONG Agrimarine, a closed, in-ocean system, is taking on Norwegian derivative fish farms in Norway. It is operating, also in China where no Norwegian derivative fish farm is allowed to set up shop:

5. Fish farms create a lot of employment. WRONG. In fact, after 26 years the BC industry has only 1,256 jobs - DFO figure - and MH just laid off 60 employees.The Netherlands has only 155. On the Isle of Eigge, Scotland, fish farms are trying to sell fish farms in this pristine area on the basis of 4 jobs. And, over time, employment drops because the feeding and lighting systems installed reduce the need for humans. In Nova Scotia, the initial labouring jobs let in 2010 were about $11 per hour. In BC, in comparison, forestry has 78,000 jobs. Fish farms are small employers and an even smaller percentage of GPP: 0.2% in BC.

Even in Norway, fish farming is small. Farms are densely packed and about 21 farms/BC farm. The claim is that 5,000 work in fish farming and the contribution to Norway's GDP is 0.5%. See this for further stats:

6. ISA gives false positive results frequently. WRONG. The provincial testing of 4,726 farmed salmon showed zero positives. In fact, it showed 1100 classic symptoms of ISA, but zero positives. If testing frequently gave false positives, fish farm fish would have given some positive tests for ISA.

On the other hand, the world designated expert lab under Dr. Kibenge, produced 5 positive results in about 60 wild fish tested for ISA - and in four of five species of Pacific salmon. This suggests that the provincial testing gave, if anything, false negatives.

7. We need more science rather than solving problems by putting fish farms on land. WRONG. Fish farms continue asking for science to avoid having to move. They still say, for instance, that sea lice don't transfer to and cause problems in wild salmon, after almost 30 years and 1000 lice per fish in Norway - where Slice no longer works. All that is needed is: DFO to focus on wild salmon and the precautionary principle.

8. We need more science. WRONG. Any reasonable person who Googles fish farm science will find science piled ten feet high saying that fish farms should be on-land, in closed containment.

9. Atlantic salmon is a wonderfully healthy, pristine product with huge amounts of Omega 3s and 6s.
WRONG. The fat content of farmed salmon makes them contain high levels of polluting organic chemicals. 'While dioxin-like activity is found in almost all animal food products that contain fat, the levels in the farmed and market salmon that we have analyzed are higher than those in almost all other foods.'

10. You need Atlantic salmon because of its Omega 3s and 6s. WRONG. The diet of western people already contains excessive amounts of Omega 6s. And all the Omega 3s you need come from vegetable oils and animal fats.

Thursday, 27 October 2011

KEY LINKS - Fish Farm Share Prices and Financial Information, Updated May 31, 2012

Share price gives you an indication of what investors think about a company. The company's financial records give you an indication of the best picture the company can present of the company's health. (See bottom for Mar 2012 analysis)

Norwegian fish farm companies' share prices have been in freefall for some time: Marine Harvest is at: 44.2 cents; Cermaq is at $10.20; Grieg Seafood is at: 66.1 cents. All USA dollars.

Find Marine Harvest share prices:
Find Grieg Seafood share prices:

A quick analysis of the industry in October, 2011: The selling price of 24 Kroner is $4.32 or negative income for Marine Harvest and Grieg Seafood.

This link says that the Norwegian derivative fish farms are all losing money:

This link shows the bad financial position that Marine Harvest is in, 3rd Q income down 97%:

This is a currency converter: Nov 27, 1 NOK = .1773 CDN Dollar. In other words: $1 CDN = 5.64 NOK.Link
See end of post for March 2012.


The financial reports make the companies sound in fine health. Investor's don't agree - shares are way down. Then go and follow brokers to the Oslo Stock Exchange. Their comments are frank and present a much more negative picture.

Marine Harvest 2010 Financial Report, delivered in 2011:

Cermaq 2010 Financial Report, delivered in 2011: Do note that CEO Geir Isaksen has been moved from the government's Cermaq to the government's train transportation ministry.

Grieg Seafood 2010 Financial Report, delivered in 2011: Click on the report image.

Bloomberg financial has frank comment on fish farms: This is the most cheery note in a couple of months. Look around for other aLinkrticles.

All Oslo Fish Farm stock market prices can be found at: Look in the right column.

2012 Financial News

Reuters analysis indicates that 2012 should be good. However, I think that Chile's production is so high and that the removal of the 26% tariff in the USA from Norwegian imports, and that Norwegian firms are after Scottish markets will produce a fish glut that will make prices fall, and be hard on Canadian production in BC, which has already laid off 60 people out of a maximum employment of 820 jobs: BC sells 85% of its fish to the USA, hence problems with its own parent companies. Pretty ruthless. sees it much the same way as Reuters, noting Marine Harvest shares have climbed 34.7% since the beginning of the year. Go take a look and see that MH's share price almost disappeared in December 2011, at 37.4 cents/share. It's not hard to climb 34 percent from nothing and reach the gargantuan 56.1 cents/share on March 15, 2012

Cermaq/Mainstream's 2011 Financial Report may be found here:

Marine Harvest's 2011 Financial Report

Here are stock price drops in Chile, Q1 2012:  So far this year, several companies listed on the Santiago Stock Exchange have seen the price of their shares go down: 17.96 per cent overall. See:

Tuesday, 25 October 2011

KEY DOCUMENT - Fish Farm Tactics:, Updated Dec 22, 2018

The Norwegian derivative fish farms spun a communications strategy to render illegitimate a Science article from 2004 about the high level of dioxins, PCBs and other chemicals in Atlantic salmon farmed fish from Scotland.

You may find by the time you finish this investigative document on, that you no longer believe fish farm communications:

This is the Science article that was neutalized: 

This report - see abstract - rates fish farms on the basis of their communications programs on sustainability and other issues:

Multinational fish farms are billion dollar companies that will adopt and change any strategy they think will move them forward.

This occurs at the same time as Marine Harvest is having difficulty making debt payments in Norway, its stocks trade lower than 48 cents, it has plead guilty to charges in BC of having caught wild fish in their nets and they have laid off more than 60 staff as they are having financial trouble..

Read the charges and other fines that Marine Harvest has had to pay. Follow the link through this site:

Update, Feb 16, 2017

Prof Ron Hites sent me a PDF on the work they did on the chemicals in salmon issue. He gives a class to his students each year. If you want a copy, send me a comment. 

Here are some tables from the Science article:

The first image is:
"Concentrations (in ng/g wet weight, except dioxins) of 14 contaminants found in farm-raised (red bars) and wild (green bars) salmon. The vertical lines represent the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles, and the boxes represent the 25th to 75th percentiles. Dioxins are in pg of World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs) per g of wet weight and include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs. Typically 75% of the total TEQ was due to the dioxin-like PCBs. Other abbreviations are as follows: Tot DDT, the p,p′ and o,p′ isomers of DDT, DDD, and DDE; Nona, nonachlor; Chlor, chlordane; Hep Epox, heptachlor epoxide."

Would you eat these fish? 

Would you eat the fish from Scotland, the Faroes, Norway and the ones at the higher end?
I don't think so.
These are the Science words: "Concentrations of (A) PCBs in ng/g wet weight, (B) dioxins (for detail, see Fig. 1) in pg of WHO-TEQ/g wet weight, (C) toxaphene in ng/g wet weight, and (D) dieldrin in ng/g wet weight in farmed, supermarket, and wild salmon. The concentrations are all given as functions of the locations where the salmon were grown or purchased. Red represents farmed salmon, green represents wild salmon, and yellow represents salmon purchased at supermarkets. The error bars represent standard errors. The number of samples is given in parentheses after the location identifier. The locations are sequenced by average contaminant rank."

The reason the fish are full of chemicals because it is in their feed, meaning it originates from the global forage fish stocks that have been serially depleted by fish farms.
The feed text is: "Concentrations of (A) PCBs in ng/g wet weight, (B) dioxins (for detail, see Fig. 1) in pg of WHO-TEQ/g wet weight, (C) toxaphene in ng/g wet weight, and (D) dieldrin in ng/g wet weight in commercial fish feed purchased at facilities in various countries at various times of the year. Each bar represents the analysis of one sample of fish feed, and the country from which it was obtained is indicated. The concentrations are given as functions of the locations where the fish feed was purchased. Fish feed purchased in Europe is indicated by red, and fish feed purchased in North or South America is indicated by gray. The locations are sequenced by average contaminant rank."

And which fish would you eat? Answer: the green column ones. And they are the wild salmon. Who'd a thunk wild salmon would be better for you than farmed?
The article text is: "Consumption advisories (in meals per month) based on U.S. EPA cumulative risk assessment methods for PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin for (A) farmed (red) and wild (green) salmon and for (B) supermarket salmon (yellow). The country in which the salmon was produced or the city from which it was purchased is indicated."

Here is a short bio for Prof Ron Hites - many awards, long career, huge number of publications:


Update Feb 26, 2018: Go read this post to find that the BC fish farms employed Hill and Knowlton, the same PR people who helped Big Tobacco sell its products and claim they did not know they caused cancer, several decades after everyone else in the world knew:

Update Dec 22, 2018: This 2018 article says that eating farmed salmon causes sterility in males and cancer. The article is from Norway/Morton: It is item 11.

Saturday, 22 October 2011

KEY LINKS to Fish Farm News and Science - Updated Nov 26, 2011

This post will grow longer. It will list world wide press and scientific papers on fish farm issues.

A Current Review Article on ISA in Salmonids - Nov 26

Read this:

A Good Example of Fish Farm Industry Spin - Nov 23

Read this:

Marine Harvest says it will not expand in Chile for the next two years. But it is not saying that its financial problems are the cause. You can go look for yourself on share and financial report post on this site. See KEY LINKS in October 2011.

With shares at about 48 cents, investors don't think much of MH. There are links to brokers for up to date comment. Form your own opinion.

Good Review Article on the Phase after Fish Farms - Ocean Farming of Seaweed, Other Plants and Oysters - Nov 24

Read this: This article acknowledges that fish harvesting and fish farming are sunset industries, but spends most of its length on developing where we will go for our food needs, fuel needs, take CO2 and nitrogen out of the sea, and produce oxygen at the same time.

Good Historical Article on Fish Farming in Scotland - Nov 23

This is a fair comment article on the history of fish farming in Scotland and how it has changed over the years. You should read it.

Fish Farms in Chile Facing Legal Case for Bringing and Spreading ISA, Nov 5

These two links outline the situation and cases launched in 2009: Link1.:
Link 2.: Link 2 is in Spanish, so run it through Google's translator program.

Cermaq and Marine Harvest research showed that the ISA was brought over by Aquagen, a company they own shares in. This links to an industry Powerpoint presentation:

Cooke Aquaculture Charged for Using Illegal Chemicals, Nov 3, 2011

Environment Canada has charged Cooke Aquaculture of New Brunswick/Nova Scotia with use of illegal chemicals. The outcome could be as large as $33 million in fines and up to 99 years in jail for company executives for using cypermethrin to kill fish farm sea lice. It resulted in massive kills of lobsters as well. Read this article:

Fish farms are also facing law suits in Chile for the disease disaster from 2008 to 2010: link to come.

Bruce Sandison - Cull of the Wild, The Daily Mail, Scotland, Oct 22, 2011

Scroll down this link about half way and then read the Bruce Sandison article on fish farms in Scotland. This is a restrained article that lists some of the problems in fish farms in Scotland. You will find these problems pretty much the same as in BC:

Fish Farm Salmon Make Fat Diabetic Mice

This article says that mice fed with farmed Atlantic salmon high in fats (omega 3s, for instance) and persistent organic pollutants grew obese and developed diabetes:

Fish Farm Marketing Report - Vancouver 2006: The Canadian Farmed Salmon
Industry -Benchmark Analysis for the US Market - Updated Nov 8, 2011.

This PDF study identifies how to best 'sell' in-ocean fish farms in Canada by identifying the advantages and disadvantages. Apparently, aboriginals need to be streamlined by the feds, and anyone who disagrees with fish farms is spreading 'falsehoods' among other things. And our ocean is pristine versus Norway's which is not, and NW's ocean is too cold. See the table on page four. The link is: The new link is:

Summary Stats: This is a good report to get to know fish farm financial and other statistical dimensions; however, it needs to be updated.

Cost per kg salmon: Exhibit 6, P 27. A well done table comparing CDN, NW and CHL.
Sites: Norway: 2400; BC: 130.
Concession Fee: Norway $800K; Canada: $0. An environmental assessment can be $75K - $150K in Canada
Annual Rent: NW: $0; BC: $3700 - 8900.
Canadian Mortality to Harvest: 5 - 15%. In comparison, in 2011, BC fish farms say: 1%.
Wage Rates: P 28.
Interview Comments: P 32, Exhibit 8.
Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Canadian industry in BC, P 34: No rules for aboriginals. ENGO falsehoods. If you disagree with fish farms you are making falsehoods. On the plus side BC has better access to USA market for whole gutted Atlantic Salmon.


Introductory List of Fish Farm Issues

For those wishing to followup their concerns with fish farm issues, here is a brief list of the major problems:

1. Disease - one third to one half of all product is lost to disease - $32 - $49 billion every year.
2. Disease - transfer to wild fish, for example, sockeye and coho salmon.
3. Genetic interactions with wild Atlantic salmon.
4. Environmental degradation
5. Using third world baitfish in feed rather than leaving it for third world mouths.
6. Kills of marine mammals and birds.
7. Antifouling paints.
8. Use of chemicals to kill sea lice, some of which are illegal.
9. Transferring lice to wild salmon smolts.
10. Failing to pay licence fees.
11. Catching wild salmon and herring.
12. Using the ocean as a free open sewer for feed and fish waste.
13. Open-net, in-ocean fish farms are technologically old tech.
14. The rest of the world's farmers, retailers and consumers want only fish from sustainable sources, particularly on-land, closed, RAS systems.

The internet is now a good source of information and you can find more in-depth coverage of these and other issues easily.

Friday, 21 October 2011

KEY DOCUMENT - ISA Infections World Wide Since 1984 - Updated May 6, 2014

ISA Infections Since the Norwegian Fish Farms Developed ISA in 1984 - Updated May 24, 2012
1984 - 2014
Continual outbreak for 30 years.
Canada – NB
9.9M fish, $200 million loss.

Worldwide, fish farms lost $3 billion to disease.

Canada – NS

USA – Maine

The Faroe Islands
2001 – 2006



The Shetland Islands

The Faroe Islands

Canada – PEI

A $2billion loss. About 250 million salmon; Cermaq/Mainstream lost $323 million; Marine Harvest lost 1.4 billion Euros.
23 Farms sequenced for ISA. 28 Strains of ISA. One farm slaughtered for ISA
Canada - NS
A wild Atlantic salmon run tested positive for ISA.
Canada - BC
Wild sockeye, Rivers Inlet smolts test positive. Adult coho, chum chinook, Fraser R test positive. Two adult sockeye, Fraser River, test positive.
Province reports more than1000 classic symptoms, but zero ISA. Miller finds 25% farmed fish in Clayoquot have ISA - + 100,000 fish per farm.
Global Losses
Annual disease losses are 1/3 to ½ of fish & shrimp. That is $32.5 to $49.2 billion every year.

Canada - Nova Scotia





Cooke Aquaculture is ordered to slaughter 1 million farmed salmon for ISA.
ISA positive test and truckloads of farmed salmon destroyed.

May 6, the

April 29,, the farm refused to empty the site.
This is the Kibenge document supporting this table: His first conclusion, slide 36, is that: Aquatic animal disease is part and parcel of aquaculture.
This is the source for the 2012 ISA infection in NS: 'Officials at provincial labs in Truro were conducting routine tests on farmed salmon when positive indications for infectious salmon anemia were found.'

This is the import of eggs/embryos to BC fish farms
This is the BC disease breakout, Kibenge/Routledge, document: <>

April 30, 2012, Russia has just found e-coli and salmonella in farmed salmon imported from Norway

A new outbreak of ISA in Norway, 2012:

Thursday, 20 October 2011

ISA in BC - Actions Needed Now

I am sad to say that I have the unhappy distinction of being the person who broke the BC ISA story to the world. The OIE lab designated the world's ISA specialist, under Dr. Kibenge, confirmed ISA in BC sockeye smolts this week.

Here are the actions needed now:

1. Cull the farmed salmon.
2. Remove the salmon farms from the ocean and put them on land.
3. Immediately test all salmon strains in BC for ISA - there are 9,562 strains.
4. Inform our neighbours in Alaska and Washington that ISA is in BC.
5. Inform the Pacific Ocean nations that have salmon, that ISA is now in the Pacific.

DFO Minister, Keith Ashfield, and BC Premier, Christy Clark, need to move quickly to find out how big the problem is and take actions to solve the situation. As it stands now Ashfield has the unhappy distinction of possibly going down in history as the man who destroyed Pacific Ocean salmon, five other anadromous Pacific species, and saltwater bait fish related to salmonids such as herring, pilchards, anchovy, needle fish and others. This is serious.

Norwegian ISA has been carried to every location Norwegian derivative fish farms have set up shop since 1984. As there was no ISA in the Pacific, and it is the European strain of ISA, it has been brought here to fish farms through egg and embryo importation; they received 29 million.

Fish farms, the Province and DFO said ISA was not here and could not get here because of testing. But it is here and decisive action is needed now.

Monday, 17 October 2011

ISA Confirmed in BC - Salmon Extinction Possible

The worst and saddest thing that could happen to Pacific Ocean salmonids has happened. The viral disease ISA has been confirmed in BC.


This Atlantic Ocean disease devastated the industry in Chile to a $2billion loss, 2007 - 2010. The Norwegian fish farms in Norway have not been free of this lethal disease for the 27 years since the first outbreak in 1984.

ISA was brought to the south Pacific by the Norwegian derivative fish farms. It has now been brought from the Atlantic to Norwegian derivative fish farms in BC in eggs/embryos. They, the Province and DFO said that this could not happen in BC - even though it has infected fish farms in NB, NS and PEI, Scotland, The Shetland Islands, The Faroe Islands and the USA (Maine). Yet it is now here.

This disease has the potential to make all ten species of Pacific Ocean anadromous salmonids become extinct, as well as some saltwater species like herring and pilchards.

DFO needs to take two actions immediately: take fish farms out of the ocean and put them in on-land facilities; and, identify all ISA in wild salmonids in BC.

The best new presentation on the global reach and cost of ISA is by Dr. Kibenge who heads the world disease centre for ISA in PEI:

The first conclusion of the Kibenge report, slide 36, is: 'Aquatic animal disease is part and parcel of aquaculture.' The report states that disease destroys 1/3 to 1/2 of all aquaculture products. The potential cost is: $32 to $49 billion.every year.

ISA is only one of several dozen salmonid infections.

Friday, 14 October 2011

Cohen Commission Testimony - Dr. Kristi Miller, Updated Oct 30, 2011

The best section of video testimony into the 2009 Fraser River sockeye collapse by a scientist, Kristi Miller, is: She talks about her viral signature work.

While over 50 minutes long, it is well worth viewing as it gives the best summary of the nuances and caveats of viral pathology science in salmon. It is the best video of all that are available. Bring caffeine and listen.

The other reason for viewing this 'clip' is that while the lawyers are trying to move Miller toward saying what will support the interpretation that they want to give her research, it is the least partisan of the testimony on the stand.

Miller is allowed to fully say what she has to say and she does a great job. Fascinating.

This is Kristi Miller's Powerpoint presentation of her research, as Cohen Commission document:

This is Kristi Miller's Science article:

Saturday, 8 October 2011

Global Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) in Fish Farms - Updated Nov 20, 2011

Infectious Salmon Anemia is a lethal viral infection that kills salmon. It was developed by the Norwegian fish farm companies in the early 1980s. The freshwater ISA virus, a non-lethal version, mutated with the contact of wild Atlantic salmon and farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway.

ISA has plagued in-ocean, open-containment fish farms everywhere they have spread. It has spread from Norway to Scotland, Ireland, the Faroe Islands, Canada (NB, then NS, then PEI), the USA (Maine) and Chile. Norway has never been free of ISA since the fish farms developed the lethal strain in 1984.

Read this article and note the world map of where this Norwegian disease has spread:

This article was written in 2009, so it does not have the full cost of the Chilean fish farm collapse. The Norwegian derivative fish farms, for example, Cermaq/Mainstream reportedly lost $323 million, while Marine Harvest lost 1.4 billion Euros.

63 workers were killed in Chile, and 13,000 were let go when the 500 fish farms (there were 800) had to have their fish slaughtered. At the conservative estimate of 500,000 Atlantic salmon per farm, that means 250 million, or a quarter of a billion dead fish. This is only one fish farm disease.

As ISA was only an Atlantic Ocean disease, Chile is the site of the first Pacific Ocean infection. It was brought there by the Norwegian derivative fish farm companies.

Aquagen the company that vertically transmitted ISA to Chile, took the report writers to the commission in Norway that deals with fraudulent science. Their ruling was that with a few caveats, that the reserchers were not faudulent.

This is the ruling:

Thursday, 6 October 2011

Purpose of Fish Farm News and Science

The purpose of this blog is to identify key fish farm science documents for those looking to address concerns about open-containment, in-ocean farms, and to address specific issues from time to time.

Following posts will include, for instance, the David Miller, article on how the fish farms 'managed' a January, 2004 Science article in Scotland.

Then there is the manual fish farms put out on the strategies they employ to defuse complaints about fish farms.

Then there is the excellent 2010 study that details several complete designs of closed-containment, on-land systems that make more money than in-ocean, open-containment systems that are now technologically out of date.

Another is the list of 32 on-land, closed-containment, RAS systems that have come my way.

This blog will be document and weblink heavy.

Marine Mammals Killed by Fish Farms in BC And Around the World - Updated April 8, 2016

I have looked into the numbers of marine mammals killed in BC, Canada by fish farms. This type of kill happens everywhere in the world that fish farms set up shop and there are sea mammals and birds.

There are three periods to the BC data: from 1984 at industry start-up to 1989 + DFO study period - 1990 - 2000 + 2001 - 2011. Respectively, these figures are 6,243 X 6/11 + 6,243 + 1,821 = 3,405 + 6,243 + 1,821 = 11,469. In other words there have been an extremely large number of marine mammals killed by fish farms in BC.

The DFO document to read is: The conclusions are on page 27, and recommendations follow. It said the killing of marine mammals should stop, and that the 6,243 figure was conservative, hence, the estimate of the earlier period, 3,405 will be conservative also. The 2010 DFO draft regs still authorize the kill.

DFO sent me the PDF on the 2001 to 2011 period - the 1,821 figure. It's average kill rate is less than half of that during the DFO study period. There is no explanation given.


Sea lion kills happen all over the globe at fish farms. Here is a news article for March 15, 2012:
"Meridian Salmon Group are currently carrying out an investigation into alleged unlawful killing of seals at their site near Burrastow. Two managers are currently under suspension pending a court case on 21 March." This is in the Shetland Islands in Scotland. See:


Here is a link from the Sunday Herald, Scotland, that details the 2012 seal kills in Scotland: There have been 310 seals killed.


And to update the figures for Scotland, here is a 2015 article: 'Figures from Scotland show a decline in kills from 459 in 2011 to 433 in 2012, 274 in 2013 and 205 in 2014. [Note: Scientists say that it represents localized extinctions because seals have a 10 km territory and don't move on, so declining numbers means having killed all the seals]  This year the Government has ­authorised the deaths of up to 859 – 662 grey seals and 197 common seals. But campaigners argue none should die and demanded companies invested in nets and acoustic deterrents.'

The reference is:

And to update figures for 2016, in Clayoquot Sound, Cermaq killed 15 sea lions in November/December 2015. See:

Seal and sea lion kills in BC and around the world would be 100% eliminated if fish farms were on land.

And in 2016, Cermaq killed another 15 sea lions at a fish farm in Clayoquot Sound: