Tuesday, 10 May 2016

180 On-Land Fish Farm Systems and more than 20,000 actual on-land fish farms around the world - Updated April 24, 2017

Scroll down to the list of on-land fish farms. The Updates before the list are useful science documents for anyone who wants to do more reading. In-ocean fish farms are dinosaurs that pollute the ocean causing eutrophication on a massive scale. They need to be on land.

This is the original post I made in Jan 2012 and kept updated into 2016:  http://fishfarmnews.blogspot.ca/2012/01/key-document-142-mostly-on-land-closed.html.

I will begin adding new fish farms systems to this post, started May 10, 2016 because I have so many in the original post that blogspot.com is having difficulty adding and saving anymore.

This is the text of the 2012 post:

My list of mostly on-land, closed, most recirculating systems for raising fish now has 142 different systems on it (and the Jan 20, 2016 update below adds thousands of firms in Europe). This represents more than 10,000 actual farms on land, several thousand additional firms and many different species of fish. This is a milestone, and although the Norwegian fish farms, Marine Harvest, Cermaq (Mitsubishi) and Grieg Seafood say it can't be done, they are obviously wrong, and don't want to come out of the water. Enough is enough. We need our governments around the world to take fish farms out of our pristine oceans.

Denmark, for instance, has half its farms as RAS systems - recirculating aquaculture system. Added to the Kenyan system at the bottom (system 73) will bring the current number of on-land farms to 10,000 around the world. Finland never allowed fish farms in its ocean. They all have to be on land.

There is no reason anymore to have old-tech, open-net, in-ocean farms with their environmental degradation problems and open sewage in our pristine oceans. Move forward to the October to December period of 2015 because the Norwegian governement is so angered by in-ocean fish farms that it is awarding free licences for them to set up on land. In ocean licences now go for $9- to $12-million in auction. So the free on-land licences are a significant subsidy as well.

It is time to ask the question: why are fish farms raising Atlantic salmon in BC where there are five species of Pacific salmon? Why are fish farms in the ocean when all their problems can be eliminated on land? Why are fish farms raising carnivores that require the killing of many stocks of ocean fish that should be eaten by people?

Here is a new 2013 document that shows on-land, circulating systems make more money than in-ocean net-pen operationshttp://tidescanada.org/wp-content/uploads/files/salmon/workshop-sept-2013/NEWD1-11TrondRostenandBrianVinci.pdf. It is a very technical document, but worth the effort of crunching through it. You will note that different assumptions give different results, but the last page says it all: production of fish on-land is not more expensive than in-ocean (note that this is stated in the negative based on the initial hypothesis statement)

Here is the CAAR symposium link on other closed containment studies: http://tidescanada.org/salLinkmon/aquaculture-innovation-workshops-and-reports/.

Here is the 2010 report written for SOS Marine Conservation Foundation, Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture: http://www.findonnelly.ca/sites/default/files/Technologies_for_Viable_Salmon_Aquaculture.pdf.

SOS concluded that: there is no technical or economic barrier to closed containment salmon farm aquaculture for the production of salmon. Moreover, B.C. is advantageously provisioned for catalyzing an industrial change and for retaining the new emergent industry in B.C.

Here is the link to the Seachoice on-land circulating systems released April 8, 2013:
http://www.seachoice.org/seachoice-news/canadian-and-u-s-closed-containment-farmers-lead-the-way-in-ocean-friendly-seafood-solutions/.    There are an additional 6 systems here.

Here is a link to a closed containment study at the end of 2014, Dec 27: http://fishfarmnews.blogspot.ca/2014/12/study-on-land-fish-farm-systems-make.html.

Here is a link to the Kuterra on-land system in BC. This is a good costing document, and retailers realize the difference and will stock Kuterra salmon, but not Marine Harvest, Cermaq nor Grieg Seafood: See this link: http://www.namgis.bc.ca/ccp/Pages/default.aspx.

Note that below these various updates is the list of on-land fish farms

Updated, Feb 5, 2015: In Norway each fish farm must pay $1.69 Million to get a licence. [Now, in Dec 2015, there are those free licences to set up on land.]

In BC, because we have very low fees, ($5171.25 X 130 = $67,000), it means we are subsidizing every farm to the tune of $2 million. What this means is that Norwegian-style fish farms have no argument for not being put on land because of cost. They are subsidized now $2 million.

We taxpayers are subsidizing the entire industry of, say, 130 farms (80 operating at any given time) to the tune of $260 million. This is 400% of the entire aquaculture contribution to GPP of $61.9 Million. Fish farms need to be on land, just like the 10,000 other actual on-land farms around the world.

Note that the Norwegian in-ocean licence of $9 to $12 M, means BC is subsidizing fish farms to the tune of $1.17 to $1.56 Billion to use our pristine ocean as a free open sewer.

See: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/11/marine-harvest-licenses-idUSL6N0N338Y20140411.

Updated, May, 2015 The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute (TCFFI), is producing farmed Atlantics in, get this, Norway. See the article which has a link to the research document: http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/2056/trends-in-salmonid-recirculating-aquaculture-systems/.
There is no need for the dinosaur old-tech in-ocean fish farms any more.

Updated, August 20, 2015, AKVA, listed below in number 26, is having its best year ever selling on-land fish farm systems, even in Norway, for Pete's sake: http://www.undercurrentnews.com/2015/08/20/akva-seeing-historically-high-interest-in-land-based-farming-amid-record-quarter-h1/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=d35cf2dd4c-Europe_briefing_Aug_20_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-d35cf2dd4c-92426209.

Update to Oct 1, 2015: Fish 2.0, 2015, a competition for sustainable aquaculture projects. See: http://www.fish20.org/news/9-news/217-fish-2-0-new-prizes-7.

Updated, Oct 3, 2015: Here is a good organization of recirculating aquculture systems, in Norway no less: http://www.nordicras.net/Members/Industry. It is the Nordic Network on Recirculating Aquaculture Systems.

Updated, Oct 7, 2015: Here is a Powerpoint presentation on an on-land farm for rainbow trout in Canada. Most importantly, it gives the financial figures on building, production cycle to harvest: http://www.tidescanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Dan_Stechey_-_The_Canadian_Model_Farm_Initiative.pdf.

****Updated, Oct 14, 2015. This is a really great summary Powerpoint presentation of a good 30 on-land RAS systems presented in Nanaimo, BC, Canada, 2015, along with financials and metric tonnes: http://www.palomaquaculture.com/support-files/palom-aquaculture-steve-summerfelt-ras-update-june-5-2015.pdf. The question is: how many is enough on-land fish farms before governments pull all in-ocean farms out of the water for their high environmental damage? After all, the only monetary advantage they have is getting off Scot free from their sewage costs, and those are paid for by us, the public, $10.4 Billion in BC alone. We don't want to pay.

Updated, Oct 17, 2015. To identify any BC in-ocean farm, see this DFO link:  http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture/licence-permis/docs/finfish-pisciculture-eng.html.

Updated, Oct 21, 2015: This is a cost-comparison, by Deloitte, of on-land, in-sea, and on-land and in-sea at different ages. The report says that on-land is the way of the future, because capital costs are lower than in-sea models and operating costs will drop, and growing fish at market site reduces shipping costs. It also sees a market for the three fish farm systems: http://fishfarminginternational.com/tag/land-based/.

Updated Nov 11, 2015, An economic analysis of Daninsh Model Trout:  http://www.aquabestproject.eu/media/14594/aquabest_24_2014_report.pdf.

Updated Dec 30, 2015: This is the Dr. Summerfelt site for on-land farms, a USA site: http://www.conservationfund.org/our-experts/steve-summerfelt. A good, comprehensive site for on-land.

Updated Jan 20, 2016. The attached link lists thousands of on-land farms in Europe. Russia alone has 2500. These are in addition to the 127 I have found so far. While this report has a section on marine growth, most is about on land fish farms. See: http://www.aquafima.eu/export/sites/aquafima/documents/WP5/Actual-and-potential-aquaculture-locations-in-the-BSR_final-with-maps.pdf.

Updated Jan 29, 2016. This is a 2014 report by the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Seafood Watch ranking system, reporting on three on-land farms: Namgis, BC, West Virginia, TCFFI, USA and Atlantic Sapphire, Denmark. It shows what goes into a sound ranking system, unlike, say, the BAPs, ASCs and so on: http://www.seafoodwatch.org/-/m/sfw/pdf/reports/mba_seafoodwatch_atlanticsalmon_ras_report.pdf.

Updated May 11, 2016:  AKVA has best-ever Q1, as land-based tech doubles revenue:(https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/05/11/akva-hails-best-ever-q1-as-land-based-tech-doubles-revenue/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=e2646190b6-Europe_briefing_May_11_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-e2646190b6-92426209.

Updated May 11, 2016: China invests $10 in on-land technology in 2015, will double in 2016:  http://fishfarminginternational.com/china-invests-10-million-in-intensive-aquaculture-tech/?inf_contact_key=1c803dc2a7180a5a29f6d5ece45ab8f04f75b84845a15f359fa43bc5f0eb5aed

Updated June 3, 2016: Land Based RAS now accounts for 6% of production in China, 12% in USA/EU, by 2030, 40% of aqua will be RAS, or $13.3 Billion:  http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/750546/ras-tech-engineering-the-future.

Updated June 12, 2016: Yet another study that says on-land fish farms are cheaper than in-ocean fish farms: http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/763111/report-lower-environmental-footprint-for-land-based-salmon

Updated June 29, 2016: A good article on the Atlantic Salmon Federation and scientists in NS/NL calling for closed containment of the fish farm industry, and the problems with the Grieg Seafood's Placentia Bay development of 11 open pen farms: http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/-2135605.htm.

Updated July 7, 2016. TimberFish is establishing a whole new method of agricultural growth on both land and water: http://www.timberfishtech.com/.

Updated Aug 19, 2016: AKVA on-land fish farm system sales exploding: http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/773637/akva-group-ceo-land-based-aquaculture-tech-sales-exploding?utm_source=IntraFish+Aquaculture+Newsletter&utm_campaign=01896960c5-AquacultureNewsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_ec4b681694-01896960c5-244877629.

Updated Aug 23, 2016: AKVA land-based systems, Q2 financials:  http://www.akvagroup.com/news/akva-group-asa-2q-2016-financial-reporting-

Updated Sept 27, 2016: Study of linking hydropnics and on-land fish farms:http://www.seafoodnews.com/Story/1035520/Univ%2Dof%2DNew%2DHampshire%2DTests%2DIntegrating%2DLand%2DBased%2DAquaculture%2Dwith%2DHydroponic%2DPlant%2DProduction

Updated, Sept 30, 2016: Bjorn Myrseth on 11 closed containment licence applications in Norway: http://www.fishfarmingexpert.com/news/closed-containment-tops-likely-list/.

Updated, Nov 3, 2016: AKVA's orders for land-based fish farm systems is now at 50%:  https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/11/03/akvas-q3-weakened-by-americas-danish-restructuring/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=0e131415a7-Europe_briefing_Nov_03_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-0e131415a7-92426209.

Updated Nov 5, 2016: Look into the USA group, Recirculating Farmers Coalistion for on-land production:  http://www.recirculatingfarms.org/.

Updated Nov 14, 2016: Poland's on-land Jurassic Salmon gets ASC certification: http://www.intrafish.com/news/1190880/a-first-polish-land-based-salmon-farm-scoops-asc-stamp?utm_source=IntraFish+Aquaculture+Newsletter&utm_campaign=b056963138-AquacultureNewsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_ec4b681694-b056963138-244877629.

Updated Jan 1, 2017: a good list of links for on-land fish farms on Watershed Watch:  https://www.watershed-watch.org/issues/salmon-farming/reducing-the-impacts/closed-containment/.

Updated Jan31, 2017: Biomin - RAS and bacteria for on-land shrimp farms:  http://www.biomin.net/en/articles/sustainable-shrimp-farming-high-density-biofloc-dominated-no-water-exchange-systems/.

““Biofloc” is a general term that describes an assemblage of living (bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans) and non-living (detritus, uneaten feed, waste products) components that form suspended aggregates also in aquaculture systems.”

Updated Feb 20, 2017: Interest in on-land growing: http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/1216606/interest-growing-fast-for-land-based-salmon-farming.

Updated Feb 23, 2017: Veolia, RAS, plant design and build:  http://technomaps.veoliawatertechnologies.com/processes/lib/3289,RAS_2015_en_Print.pdf.

Updated Feb 24, 2017: AquaMaof Group, to build, farm to 1500 grams, salmon, Grieg Seafood - NL, Canada, AMG Norway, subsidiary of Aqua Maof Group: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/amg-norway-a-subsidiary-of-the-aqua-maof-group-was-chosen-by-grieg-nl-to-build-the-worlds-largest-indoor-salmon-aquaculture-facility-in-newfoundland-595795161.html. 
See: http://aquamaof.com/about.asp. 50 projects around the world.

Updated Mar 3, 2017: Atlantic Sapphire to build 90,000tonne on-land facility in Florida, USA. This is bigger than the entire BC industry of about 85,000tonnes: https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2017/03/03/atlantic-sapphire-thinks-big-after-approval-for-florida-salmon-farm/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=977f05fcef-Americas_briefing_Mar_03_2017&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-977f05fcef-92426209.

Updated Mar 6, 2017: A new report showing that costs of in-ocean and on-land are the same: https://www.facebook.com/groups/nlaquaculture/1978966712327178/.

Updated Mar 9, 2017: On-land, RAS to reach 150,000 mt by 2020:  https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2017/03/09/dnb-estimates-ras-farming-will-produce-150000t-by-2020/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=5396d44906-Americas_briefing_Mar_09_2017&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-5396d44906-92426209.

Updated Mar 15, 2017: sewage treatment for fish waste, on-land: http://www.thefishsite.com/fishnews/28897/new-solution-for-aquaculture-wastewater-treatment/. See also item 262 in BAD NEWS BITES as well for waste treatment, Jan 14, 2017 post.

Updated Mar 15, 2017: a good article on Spring Hill and fast growing on-land industry:  https://www.fastcompany.com/3068608/replacing-farms-with-fish-farms-the-odd-solution-to-both-hunger-and-cli

Updated Mar 22, 2017: AquaMaof RAS technology:  http://aquamaof.com/newsEvents.asp.

Updated April 2, 2017: References a study saying on-land is the same price now, particularly in Norway as on-land licences are free, unlike the ocean: https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2017/03/29/land-based-salmon-farming-the-numbers-now-make-sense/.

Updated April 8, 2017: Huon moving toward on-land in Australia/Tasmania: http://www.fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=&day=7&id=91048&l=e&special=&ndb=1%20target=&utm_source=Watershed+Watch+Email+List&utm_campaign=d8b20e9fb1-Salmon_News_Apr7_2017&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_405944b1b5-d8b20e9fb1-166907249&mc_cid=d8b20e9fb1&mc_eid=5777c92bcd.

Updated April 12, 2017: On-land RAS firm Billund Aquakultur: http://www.billund-aqua.dk/.

Updated April 24, 2017: German RAS firm in Bremerhaven:  http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/1242335/photos-german-recirculating-aquaculture-system-research-facility-aims-to-move-sector-forward.


And the list of on-land fish farm systems is here:  


180. Great American Aquaculture - seabass, Connecticut: http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/1243094/us-land-based-sea-bass-farming-project-ready-for-launch.

179. Superior Fresh - salmon, USA, Jackson County: http://www.superiorfresh.com/.

178. Kingfish Zeeland - kingfish, Netherlands, COO Kees Kloet has developed 30 on-land kingfish operations: https://www.kingfish-zeeland.com/the-team.

177. Yellow tail - 9 facilities, USA. A very good Powerpoint presentation of the results: http://www.tidescanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/D-2-7AnD-riesKamstraD-evelopingYellowTailKingFishFarmingInLanD-BaseD-CloseD-ContainmentSystems.pdf.

176. Atlantic Sapphire, USA, Salmon, Florida, 90,000 tonnes: http://www.atlanticsapphire.com/. See the story: https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2017/03/03/atlantic-sapphire-thinks-big-after-approval-for-florida-salmon-farm/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=977f05fcef-Americas_briefing_Mar_03_2017&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-977f05fcef-92426209. This one is a complete game-changer for on-land, as in hasta la vista in-ocean.

175. Pentair - seabass, Connecticut, USA: https://www.pentair.com/en/industries/food-beverage/aquaculture.

174. Akvafarm Rjukan - Norway, RAS, Atlantic salmon: http://kyst.no/nyheter/konsesjon-tildelt-akvafarm-rjukan-kan-bety-60-nye-arbeidsplasser/.

173. Hudson Valley Farms, USA, salmon: http://advocate.gaalliance.org/a-land-grab-for-salmon-and-shrimp-in-upstate-new-york/. Note that a previous, steelhead farm is system 115: Hudson Valley, USA, NY, steelhead. See: http://www.hudsonvalleyfishfarms.com/our_feed.html.

172.  Tomren Fish - Norway, $48 million, in Trohaug, Tomrefjord:  http://www.intrafish.com/aquaculture/1214665/norwegian-firm-invests-usd-48-million-in-land-based-salmon-farm.

171. Nitrifying Bioreactor - India, many species, this is a huge movement with a lot of farms the potential, using the RAS system: http://www.nitrifying-bioreactor.com/.

170. Sashimi Royal - Yellowtail, Denmark, 1200mt: http://www.sashimiroyal.com/2-2/news/.

169. Danish Salmon - Denmark, RAS, 2000mt:  https://stateofgreen.com/en/profiles/akva-group-denmark/solutions/fish-farm-danish-salmon.

168. UAE, Oman, SA - major development, multiple species, including on land and in water farms, as well as marine RAS. Read this UN FAO report on a major development of hundreds of facilities: http://www.fao.org/in-action/globefish/fishery-information/resource-detail/en/c/338614/. Also included on land salmon, in salt water taken from the ocean.

167. Iowa Hog Farm - barramundi, USA: http://www.seafoodnews.com/Story/1046204/Bizarre%2Dand%2DInspiring%2Dan%2DIowa%2DFamilys%2DHog%2DFarm%2DNow%2DRaises%2DBarramundi.

166. Fish Breeders of Idaho - USA, trout, sturgeon, tilapia: http://www.fishbreedersofidaho.com/.

165. Swiss Alpine Fish AG, salmon: http://swisslachs.ch/en/about-swiss-alpine-fish/

164. WorldFish - India, Bangladesh, moa fish. This has the potential to be thousands of farms, gill nets and so on in multiple countries: http://worldfishcenter.org/pages/gill-net/.

163. Whole Oceans, USA, salmon, subsidiary of NJ, Emergent Holdings: http://www.theforecaster.net/harpswells-former-navy-fuel-depot-eyed-for-indoor-salmon-farm/?utm_source=Watershed+Watch+Email+List&utm_campaign=8395b046c0-Salmon_News_Nov_17_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_405944b1b5-8395b046c0-166907249.

162. FishFrom - UK, salmon - in set up phase, raising money: http://www.intrafish.com/news/655758/uk-land-based-salmon-project-still-on-the-table

161.Sino Agro Foods - China will be largest on land RAS system in the world, shrimp, tilapia and others: http://advocate.gaalliance.org/an-inside-look-at-sino-agro-foods-giant-prawn-megafarm/.

160. Coho Farms Ltd, Bulgaria, coho: http://foreignersandfriends.com/coho-farms-europes-first-coho-salmon-farm-launched-bulgaria/. The first of many.

159. Taste of BC Aquafarms, business arm,  Little Cedarfalls, steelhead, Canada : http://www.littlecedarfalls.com/about-us.html.

158. Matorka, Arctic Char, Iceland: http://www.matorka.is/OurFish/Production/ArcticChar/. And: http://www.thefishsite.com/fishnews/28309/sustainable-arctic-char-farming-to-expand-following-investment/.

157. Samherji,  Islandsbleikja - Arctic char, Iceland, 3000t: http://www.fishupdate.com/wild-salmon-advocate-takes-interest-in-farming/.

156. West Creek, BC, Canada, sockeye, coho, rainbow trout: http://www.westcreekbc.ca/.

155. Inland Sea, Iowa to raise 5.3m pounds of salmon. News: http://www.radioiowa.com/2016/08/17/investors-sought-for-salmon-farm-near-harlan/. A Danish system. Inland Sea: http://www.inland-sea.com/.

154. Anglesey Aquaculture, UK - bream, etc. See its good PDF: http://www.oceanologyinternational.com/__novadocuments/49800?v=635315172741030000.

153. Nekst - Norway, 20 million Atlantics, mostly on land: http://www.fishfarmingexpert.com/news/world-largest-land-based-salmon-farm-is-granted-license/. Using large post smolts means a shorter growing cycle in sea cages, less delousing and less environmental impact. Nekst believes that growing even larger fish on land, and spending even less time in the sea, can nearly eliminate the need for delousing with chemicals and other methods.

But excuse me while I roll my eyeballs: Partner, Kjell Aasen in Nekst says: “A key success factor for the Norwegian aquaculture industry is the know-how, skills and professionalism of Norwegian authorities in charge of the industry.  It is a matter of looking around the world, to understand that we could not have built the best aquaculture industry in the world without a good set of regulations and a qualified bureaucracy.” Fish farms make such claims but read Sandvik's, Under the Surface, for the corruption in the process.

152. Scotland/Norway, NIRI, salmon, largest on-land site in world for 26,000: https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/08/02/norwegian-tech-firm-builds-worlds-biggest-land-based-salmon-tank/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=5c613a3174-Salmon_roundup_Aug_05_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-5c613a3174-92426209. Tipping Point: Now we can build on-land commercial farms all around the globe!

151. Singapore - Apollo Aquaculture Group - many species of fish, eight to 10 times the yield from open farming, modular design, easy set-up, easy down. The first of many farms: http://www.straitstimes.com/lifestyle/farming-on-the-up-and-up.

150. Norway, CtrlAQUA - Atlantic Salmon - many systems, major interest in on-land fish farms:  http://ctrlaqua.no/.

149. Norway - Fredrikstad Seafood, of Nordic Aquafarms - Salmon, large RAS facility: https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/06/23/norwegian-company-breaking-ground-on-countrys-first-ras-salmon-facility/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=96600c9aff-Americas_briefing_Jun_23_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-96600c9aff-92426209. And: http://www.seafoodsource.com/news/aquaculture/cathal-dinneen-leaves-kuterra-to-join-norway-s-fredrikstad-seafood.

148. China - Tilapia Ponds, this is really an entire industry, but I count it here as one farm. Do note: high temp has resulted in disease and death, even in on-land farms: Seafood News, June 23, 2016. 

147. Germany - FRESH urban fish farm, saltwater species, yellowtail, salt bream, European sea bass:  http://www.friendofthesea.org/DE/news-doc.asp?CAT=1&ID=955

146. Norway - Marine Harvest, Closed Containment Ships - 950,000 salmon per boat. Fecal matter to be used:  https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/06/03/marine-harvest-in-new-application-to-farm-salmon-on-converted-cargo-vessel/?utm_source=Undercurrent+News+Alerts&utm_campaign=1b00f2ae4a-Europe_briefing_Jun_06_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_feb55e2e23-1b00f2ae4a-92426209. Also, see: http://www.seafoodnews.com/Story/1024736/Marine%2DHarvest%2DWants%2Dto%2DFarm%2DFish%2DInside%2DCargo%2DShip.

"We are going to collect the salmon's nutrient-rich excrement so that it can be used for other purposes," said Aarskog. "In addition to which, the solution is almost guaranteed to be escape-proof and lice free."

145. Taiwan - Atlantic Salmonhttp://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2016/05/14/2003646248?utm_source=Watershed+Watch+Email+List&utm_campaign=6d9fa42287-Salmon_News_May_18_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_405944b1b5-6d9fa42287-214661381. Cold water from LNG liquifying.

144, USA Tilapia, Quixotic, Colorado, Missouri: http://www.quixoticfarming.com/.

143. Canada - Tilapia. There are on-land tilapia farms in Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta. This is many farms, but listed here once, taken from the Canadian Aquaculture Alliance site, that is mostly about environmentally-degrading in-ocean fish farms:  http://www.aquaculture.ca/files/species-tilapia.php

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