This study looks at production of food stuffs like livestock and aquaculture, and the pros and cons of the different ways we grow food.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand
alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio
theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current
interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries
sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced
resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity
and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience
through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification
of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies.
However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for
feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its
broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add
resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely
largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for
aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed
aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise,
as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and
forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential
nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has
the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food
insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the
diversification of global food production systems that includes
aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will
not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate
incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental
I think it's fair to say that governments, with their conflict of interest withe fish farms, and not looking for resource efficiency, equity and environmental protection.
The other point here is that reduction fisheries take food out of the mouths of the third world, the area with the greatest population growth. Furthermore, the issue is that in trashing the 19 of the top 20 forage fish species (see The Sea Around Us report, Cashion and Pauly), the fish, mammals and birds higher on the feed chain are negatively affected. In addition many of the high fish are crops for human consumption, and at a higher price, so overall, the ocean protein declines, for all.
Here is what Marine Harvest likes to claim, even though The Sea Around Us says that fifi ratio is about 2 to 1. Also look at the species used. They are among the top 20 forage fish crops that Cashion and Pauly showed have been trashed by fish farms killing them for feed.