Sunday, 15 January 2012

Key Document - 75 Mostly On-land, Closed, Fish Farm Systems - More Than 10,000 actual farms - Updated - Feb 20, 2015

My list of mostly on-land, closed, some recirculating systems for raising fish now has 75 different systems on it now. This represents more than 8,100 actual farms on land, and many different species of fish.

Denmark, for instance, has half its farms as RAS systems - recirculating aquaculture system. Added to the Kenyan system at the bottom (system 73) will bring the current number of on-land farms to 10,000 around the world

There is no reason anymore to have old-tech, open-net, in-ocean farms with their environmental degradation problems and open sewage in our pristine oceans.

It is time to ask the question: why are fish farms raising Atlantic salmon in BC where there are five species of Pacific salmon? Why are fish farms in the ocean when all their problems can be eliminated on land?

Here is a new 2013 document that shows on-land, circulating system makes more money than in-ocean net-pen operations It is a very technical document, but worth the effort of crunching through it. You will note that different assumptions give different results, but the last page says it all: production of fish on-land is not more expensive than in-ocean (note that this is stated in the negative based on the initial hypothesis statement)

Here is the CAAR symposium link on other closed containment studies:

Here is the 2010 report written for SOS Marine Conservation Foundation, Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture:

SOS concluded that: there is no technical or economic barrier to closed containment salmon farm aquaculture for the production of salmon. Moreover, B.C. is advantageously provisioned for catalyzing an industrial change and for retaining the new emergent industry in B.C.

Here is the link to the Seachoice on-land circulating systems released April 8, 2013:    There are an additional 6 systems here.

Here is a link to a closed containment study at the end of 2014, Dec 27:

Updated to Feb 5, 2015: In Norway each fish farm must pay $1.69 Million to get a licence.

In BC, because we have very low fees, ($5171.25 X 130 = $67,000), it means we are subsidizing every farm to the tune of $2 million. What this means is that Norwegian-style fish farms have no argument for not being put on land because of cost. They are subsidized now $2 million.

We taxpayers are subsidizing the entire industry of, say, 130 farms (80 operating at any given time) to the tune of $260 million. This is 400% of the entire aquaculture contribution to GPP of $61.9 Million. Fish farms need to be on land, just like the 10,000 other actual on-land farms around the world


Here are the systems that I have found:

1. Agrimarine - BC, closed containment, in-ocean, Chinook, Middle Bay, Also operates in China, and now Japan, raising bluefin tuna in the latter, Tokai University. Also starting in Norway.
2. Swift - BC, on land, Agassiz, coho.
3. Aquaseed - WA, on land, coho.
4. Aquabounty – MA, Atlantic eggs for grow-out on land.
5. Marine Harvest - BC - on-land hatchery, Sayward. Also Big Tree hatchery, and Prince Rupert.
6. Dr. Zohar - U of Maryland, low-density, in-sea, multi-product system.
7. DeVine Industries - on-land system, fish meal from vegetable protein, Michigan, Florida.
8. Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture - BC, on-land fish/mara culture systems. See above.
9. Ohio State – on-land, closed-containment. U: This system supports 200 on-land, closed and pond fish farms, raising perch, bluegill and shrimp.
10. Culture Hydroponiques of Ste. Agathe des Monts – Quebec, closed, on land, recirculating. Marc Laberge. 5000 lettuce every week as a crop from fish effluent. The process purifies water so it can be recirculated to the trout, producing 200 pounds of trout fillets per week.
11. K’udas Project/Namgis First Nation – BC, Van Isle, recirculating fresh water system above the Nimpkish River hatchery. DFO is a partner. Product in 2013.
12.Conservation Fund, American non-profit, Freshwater Institute - Shepherdstown, West VA, Dr. Steven Summerfelt, Atlantic Salmon, recirculating system, large scale, economically viable.
13. Sea Grant, U of Wisconsin – Milwaukie, WI, Growing Power, Fred Binkowski, recirculating system, perch and lettuce. Uses abandoned factories. Exporting technology to poor countries.
14. Grow Fish Anywhere, GFA - Israel, 40 litres water/ kg of fish, whereas in-water systems use 5 – 7.5 K water/per pound fish. Purpose: to grow fish anywhere in the world on land, especially close to cities where people live. No pollution. Bacteria eats waste, recirculating. Dr. Vossi Tal and Dr. Jaap Van Rijn.
15. Target Marine Products - Gray Creek Hatchery, Sechelt BC. Recirculating, on-land system, Atlantic salmon smolts and white sturgeon to adult size to harvest caviar.
16. Mood Harvest – Oslo, Norway, growing salmon in oil tankers, closed containment, anywhere in world. Expects first product in 3 – 4 years. 2014-2015.
17. The Plant – Chicago, IL, John Edel, integrated, multi-trophic Aquaculture, IMTA, tilapia, grown in typical apartment building or old factories. Shave 1500km average trip of product to market, reducing CO2 emissions and transport cost. Purpose: grow fish, vegetables in cities anywhere. Working on producing 260-kilowatt power from fish and plant waste.
18. Australis Aquaculture – Turner Falls, MA, closed-container, on-land system, barramundi, eggs to 2 pound market size,, recirculating, 99% of water, fish waste donated to local farmers, raises 2 million pounds of fish per year, discharging only 15 lbs of waste per day, the equivalent of three human houses.
19. Australis Aquaculture – Vietnam, operates a different, in-ocean, low-density system, barramundi occupy <1% of cage volume. Both operations have a culture of environmental conscience in all phases of production.
20. Andalucia - tilapia, herbivorous, Industry Center of Agriculture Technical Assistance (Technova), works with a private company aiming to grow the species in greenhouses, a recirculating system in closed containers, at present in the sea.
21. Local Ocean - Hudson. NY, closed-containment, on-land, recirculating with bacterial digestion of sewage, 99%, evaporation is the only water loss, flounder, sea bream, and many other species. Plant is tripling in size with aggressive growth to North America and Western world. Dr. Van Rijin (this an offshoot of Israel project).
22. Manitoba-Canadian Model Aqua-Farm – closed system, on land, recirculating, MB, Riddell’s Roasters plant, under the Interprovincial Partnership for Sustainable Freshwater Aquaculture Development. This is intended to provide all benchmark data for a transfer to land. 2010 2013.
23. Langsand Laks Denland, on-land, closed, recirculating. Niche market for sustainable Atlantic Salmon. Another firm, Atlantic Sapphire, intends to open a US based farm at triple the size. Other Danish trout and salmon companies are also investors in Langsand. 2013
24. Astec Aquaculture Business & Science Centre – England, tropical, saltwater facilities, on land, for start-ups. Northumberland, North East England, provides an ideal base for aquaculture businesses of all sizes and at varying stages of development, with its unique combination of ‘plug in and go’ facilities and specialist business support services. .
25. InterAqua – Norway, on-land, closed, recirculating system for all species of fish.
26. AKVA – Norway, Canada, etc. – closed, on-land. Akvasmart recirculating 15 species of fish. Their growth performance is outstanding: turbot, halibut, rainbow trout. This has a good list of advantages of recirulating, including disease, temperature and water quality control, etc plus a good design of an entire plant. Mainly an in-ocean company.
27. PR Aqua – Canada, Nanaimo, Recirculating, closed, on-land. DFO uses this in Nanaimo. See: Their customers include Marine Harvest, Big Tree, for instance, Target, Israel, 100 tonne, Tilapia, small commercial. Chile, with MH. Grey Wolf in Sechelt. Redfish Ranch, Courtenay, 100 tonne tilapia, needing 28 degree water, ie 95% recirculating, since 2001).
28. Billund Aquakultur – Denmark – recirculating, closed, on-land, many species. A modular system, increasing plant size by adding discrete, water isolated, tanks. 300 ton eels, since 1984, but can be higher. Fresh water: Eel, Trout, Salmon, Sturgeon, Tilapia, Carps, Sea water: Sea bass, Sea bream, Turbot, Cod, Groupers, Snappers Cobia and Shrimps. Site: Images of plant components.
29. Sea Farm – Netherlands, Adri Bout, on-land, recirculating, 100 tons turbot. Highrise system of eight high, six inches deep. Uses waste for fertilizer, gravity runs the water down the raceways, not suitable for salmon – too shallow.
30. Alma Aquaculture Research Station – Ontario, closed containment, on land, up to 750,000 rainbow, tilapia, arctic char. It is the same size, on land, as fish farms in the ocean.
31. Recirculating Farms USA. An association of many farms that fosters on-land, closed, recirculating systems – to 100% - from small to commercial across the USA and around the world, for example, AquaRanch, in Illinois, tlapia and other species, Friendly Aquaponics, Hawaii. 30 years of research, scalable. See its facts and myths page: Not salmon, but who says we need to grow salmon?
32. Canadian Aquaculture Systems – Canada, Daniel Stechey
33. Netherlands – 100% of fish farms are closed containment as their laws require all fish farms to do so.
34. Pakistan, there are 7,500 fish farms spread over 43,000 acres of land of the province, producing 44,300 metric tons per 1000 acre fish annually. The government has a Rs 2 bil program to promote these on-land farms.

35. Sebago Farms, Maine USA, an on-land, closed fish farm on a 72 acre site raising arctic char and steelhead, along with tomatoes and leaf vegetables. Reuses waste, heat, produces electicity, uses high tech pumping systems. Read:

36. There is the CAAR study, too in BC. Above.

37.Building Integrated Aquaculture, USA, U of Massachusetts, Amherst. Closed, recirculating, uses waste for hydroponics. And other innovative design features, for ex, humidity control. Purpose to put fish farms in every town where locally grown fish would be purchased.

38. Jovana Farms, Nigeria, catfish. – a site with character. On-land in concrete or plywood and waterproof tarp. Local feed. Sales maturity in 6 months.

39. Shalon Fish Farms - Kahwa, Uganda, in ponds on land, tilapia, mirror-carp, catfish and tilapia-kyoga. Kahwa is selling his fish farm businesses to others.
40. Lashto Fish Farm, Caribbean Harvest, Haiti – tilapia. On land, solar powered 24/7.
41. Willoughby Aquatic Farm, Columbus, Ohio, - yellow perch, closed container on land.

42. Urban Fish Farms, New York, USA - tilapia, now individual consumers are growing their own tilapia in their apartments, rather than buying any kind of farmed fish.

43. Urban Farmers, Zurich, Tank on rooftop, concept farm at moment. 100 kg fish, 400 kg vegetables. Feeds four families of four, cucumber, squash, tomatoes, eggplant, melons, chard, carrots, peas, broccoli cabbage. Tilapia, salmon, trout.

44. Okayama, Japan, blue fin tuna, as in ka-ching. On land, recirculating system. Both salt and freshwater fish., adding sodium, potassium and other elements.

45. Niri AS – Niri Seafood Ireland Ltd – 3,300 tonnes of salmon from on-land, closed system. Reen Point. They say cheaper than Norway in-ocean product, and have grown to harvest there.

46. Namibia, Kalimbeza fish farm, tilapia, this is just one of many that the government is helping.

47. Michigan State - USA. The state has a list of 52 fish farms operating in Michigan: Species include bluegill, rainbow trout, perch, and so on.These are planting stock, dressed filet and fee fishing farms.

48. Willowfield Enterprises, Canada, BC, sockeye, steelhead, several farms, West Creek Farms, on-land, integrated use of fish waste,

49. Hickling’s Fish Farm, Inc., USA, bass for food and as stock, recirculating,

50. Efficient City Farming, perch, vegetables, Germany, a system for anyone to raise their own fish.

51. First Ascent Fish Farm – Idaho, USA, live tilapia,

 52. WA, USA, Illinois grant, Olympia School District, hydroponics and tilapia in highschool.

53. Fishfrom, Scotland, on-land, closed, recirculating, Atlantic Salmon.

54. Otieno Okello, Maseno, Kisumu County, recirculating, Africa,

55. Marine Biotechnology in Baltimore, Maryland, indoor, recirculatng, no speices identified.

56. Calcutta India, Traditional ponds outside of Calcutta, India, called bheris, produce some 13,000 tons of fish a year for the city's 12 million inhabitants, and serve as critical bird habitat. But the bigger environmental service they provide is that the fish feed on the 600 million liters of raw sewage that spews from Calcutta daily, turning a health risk into a key urban crop. Although I would not eat fish that were fattened on human sewage, there must be dozens of on-land ponds. And Brian Halwell's article has info on other in-ocean fish farms that is out of date.

57. Icy Waters, Canada, Arctic Char. On land, outside in the Whitehorse, Yukon. Brr.

58. Tilapia, MDM Aqua Farms, Rumsey, Alberta, Canada,, website unavailable, 04/19/2013

59. Halibut, Scotia Halibut (Nova Scotia),, landbased, Wood’s Harbour, Clark’s Harbour.

60. Sea Bream/Sea bass, Sustainable Blue, Nova Scotia, Sea Bream/Sea bass –, land based, recirculating. Now Sustainable Blue is raising its first group of Atlantic salmon on land in closed containment:

61. Yellow Perch, Bell Aquaculture, Indiana, USA, Landbased.

62. Tilapia, Canada, Courtenay BC,, Redfish Ranch.

63. Nova Scotia, 11 on-land systems raising adult fish.

64. USA, Blue Ridge Aquaculture, Martinsville,VA, Tilapia,,  4 million pounds per year

65. The Business Place, Cape Town, South Africa, Alan Fleming, a system in a shipping container that raises four tons of fish per year. "profitable, affordable, repeatable, transportable, lockable and stackable". $18,500 US.

66. Denmark, half of the industry is RAS. See: Read also this about 1000 tonne harvest from farm:

67. Bill Martin's tilapia factory in Martinsville, Va, USA:

68. Efficient City Farming, barramundi, Berlin Germany:

69. Oceanthix, Hong Kong, grouper grown in high rises, on land:

70. VeroBlue Farms, Des Moines, Iowa/Webster city. barramundi, in buildings, bought up Iowa's First, 20,000 lbs per tank, 215 tanks:

71. North Korea, Kim Jong-un, catfish, on land, in closed containment. No sense of humour, but has on-land fish farms. Very sensible. See:

72. VeroBlue, Ohio, barramundi, 40 million pounds of fish. This is a new development. See:

73. Kenya, tilapia, catfish, trout, etc. Fish farm pond construction for fish farms all over Kenya, potentially thousands (This is in addition to the more than 8,000 actual on-land farms noted in the title above). See:

74. Norway, Atlantic salmon. Even Norway is getting on the band wagon, showing that fish should be raised in closed containment as it eliminates lice problems and could likely be extended to 4 kilo fish. See:

75. Troutdale Far,m, Gravois Mills, Missouri, USA, rainbow trout. This on-land fish farm does not have a website, but it is doing it right raising rainbows in closed containers.

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for this mega-list. Bookmarked!