Denmark, for instance, has half its farms as RAS systems - recirculating aquaculture system. Added to the Kenyan system at the bottom (system 73) will bring the current number of on-land farms to 10,000 around the world
There is no reason anymore to have old-tech, open-net, in-ocean farms with their environmental degradation problems and open sewage in our pristine oceans.
It is time to ask the question: why are fish farms raising Atlantic salmon in BC where there are five species of Pacific salmon? Why are fish farms in the ocean when all their problems can be eliminated on land?
Here is a new 2013 document that shows on-land, circulating system makes more money than in-ocean net-pen operations: http://tidescanada.org/wp-content/uploads/files/salmon/workshop-sept-2013/NEWD1-11TrondRostenandBrianVinci.pdf. It is a very technical document, but worth the effort of crunching through it. You will note that different assumptions give different results, but the last page says it all: production of fish on-land is not more expensive than in-ocean (note that this is stated in the negative based on the initial hypothesis statement)
Here is the CAAR symposium link on other closed containment studies: http://tidescanada.org/salmon/aquaculture-innovation-workshops-and-reports/.
Here is the 2010 report written for SOS Marine Conservation Foundation, Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture: http://www.findonnelly.ca/sites/default/files/Technologies_for_Viable_Salmon_Aquaculture.pdf.
SOS concluded that: there is no technical or economic barrier to closed containment salmon farm aquaculture for the production of salmon. Moreover, B.C. is advantageously provisioned for catalyzing an industrial change and for retaining the new emergent industry in B.C.
Here is the link to the Seachoice on-land circulating systems released April 8, 2013:
http://www.seachoice.org/seachoice-news/canadian-and-u-s-closed-containment-farmers-lead-the-way-in-ocean-friendly-seafood-solutions/. There are an additional 6 systems here.
Here is a link to a closed containment study at the end of 2014, Dec 27: http://fishfarmnews.blogspot.ca/2014/12/study-on-land-fish-farm-systems-make.html.
Updated to Feb 5, 2015: In Norway each fish farm must pay $1.69 Million to get a licence.
In BC, because we have very low fees, ($5171.25 X 130 = $67,000), it means we are subsidizing every farm to the tune of $2 million. What this means is that Norwegian-style fish farms have no argument for not being put on land because of cost. They are subsidized now $2 million.
We taxpayers are subsidizing the entire industry of, say, 130 farms (80 operating at any given time) to the tune of $260 million. This is 400% of the entire aquaculture contribution to GPP of $61.9 Million. Fish farms need to be on land, just like the 10,000 other actual on-land farms around the world
Here are the systems that I have found:
1. Agrimarine - BC, closed containment, in-ocean, Chinook, Middle Bay, Also operates in China, and now Japan, raising bluefin tuna in the latter, Tokai University. Also starting in Norway.
2. Swift - BC, on land, Agassiz, coho.
3. Aquaseed - WA, on land, coho.
4. Aquabounty – MA, Atlantic eggs for grow-out on land.
5. Marine Harvest - BC - on-land hatchery, Sayward. Also Big Tree hatchery, and Prince Rupert.
6. Dr. Zohar - U of Maryland, low-density, in-sea, multi-product system.
7. DeVine Industries - on-land system, fish meal from vegetable protein, Michigan, Florida.
8. Technologies for Viable Salmon Aquaculture - BC, on-land fish/mara culture systems. See above.
9. Ohio State – on-land, closed-containment. U:http://www.osu.edu/features/2007/fishfarm/. This system supports 200 on-land, closed and pond fish farms, raising perch, bluegill and shrimp.
10. Culture Hydroponiques of Ste. Agathe des Monts – Quebec, closed, on land, recirculating. Marc Laberge. 5000 lettuce every week as a crop from fish effluent. The process purifies water so it can be recirculated to the trout, producing 200 pounds of trout fillets per week.
11. K’udas Project/Namgis First Nation – BC, Van Isle, recirculating fresh water system above the Nimpkish River hatchery. DFO is a partner. Product in 2013.
12.Conservation Fund, American non-profit, Freshwater Institute - Shepherdstown, West VA, Dr. Steven Summerfelt, Atlantic Salmon, recirculating system, large scale, economically viable.
13. Sea Grant, U of Wisconsin – Milwaukie, WI, Growing Power, Fred Binkowski, recirculating system, perch and lettuce. Uses abandoned factories. Exporting technology to poor countries.
14. Grow Fish Anywhere, GFA - Israel, 40 litres water/ kg of fish, whereas in-water systems use 5 – 7.5 K water/per pound fish. Purpose: to grow fish anywhere in the world on land, especially close to cities where people live. No pollution. Bacteria eats waste, recirculating. www.growfishanywhere.com. Dr. Vossi Tal and Dr. Jaap Van Rijn.
15. Target Marine Products - Gray Creek Hatchery, Sechelt BC. Recirculating, on-land system, Atlantic salmon smolts and white sturgeon to adult size to harvest caviar.
16. Mood Harvest – Oslo, Norway, growing salmon in oil tankers, closed containment, anywhere in world. Expects first product in 3 – 4 years. 2014-2015.
17. The Plant – Chicago, IL, John Edel, integrated, multi-trophic Aquaculture, IMTA, tilapia, grown in typical apartment building or old factories. Shave 1500km average trip of product to market, reducing CO2 emissions and transport cost. Purpose: grow fish, vegetables in cities anywhere. Working on producing 260-kilowatt power from fish and plant waste.
18. Australis Aquaculture – Turner Falls, MA, closed-container, on-land system, barramundi, eggs to 2 pound market size, http://www.thebetterfish.com/, recirculating, 99% of water, fish waste donated to local farmers, raises 2 million pounds of fish per year, discharging only 15 lbs of waste per day, the equivalent of three human houses.
19. Australis Aquaculture – Vietnam, operates a different, in-ocean, low-density system, barramundi occupy <1% of cage volume. Both operations have a culture of environmental conscience in all phases of production.
20. Andalucia - tilapia, herbivorous, Industry Center of Agriculture Technical Assistance (Technova), works with a private company aiming to grow the species in greenhouses, a recirculating system in closed containers, at present in the sea.
21. Local Ocean - www.localoceans.com. Hudson. NY, closed-containment, on-land, recirculating with bacterial digestion of sewage, 99%, evaporation is the only water loss, flounder, sea bream, and many other species. Plant is tripling in size with aggressive growth to North America and Western world. Dr. Van Rijin (this an offshoot of Israel project).
22. Manitoba-Canadian Model Aqua-Farm – closed system, on land, recirculating, MB, Riddell’s Roasters plant, under the Interprovincial Partnership for Sustainable Freshwater Aquaculture Development. This is intended to provide all benchmark data for a transfer to land. 2010 – 2013.
23. Langsand Laks – Denland, on-land, closed, recirculating. Niche market for sustainable Atlantic Salmon. Another firm, Atlantic Sapphire, intends to open a US based farm at triple the size. Other Danish trout and salmon companies are also investors in Langsand. 2013
24. Astec Aquaculture Business & Science Centre – England, tropical, saltwater facilities, on land, for start-ups. Northumberland, North East England, provides an ideal base for aquaculture businesses of all sizes and at varying stages of development, with its unique combination of ‘plug in and go’ facilities and specialist business support services. . http://www.astecaquaculture.com/
25. InterAqua – Norway, on-land, closed, recirculating system for all species of fish. http://www.interaqua.dk/ras_plants.php.
26. AKVA – Norway, Canada, etc. – closed, on-land. Akvasmart recirculating 15 species of fish. Their growth performance is outstanding: turbot, halibut, rainbow trout. This has a good list of advantages of recirulating, including disease, temperature and water quality control, etc plus a good design of an entire plant. http://www.akvagroup.com/index.cfm?id=319215. Mainly an in-ocean company.
27. PR Aqua – Canada, Nanaimo, Recirculating, closed, on-land. DFO uses this in Nanaimo. See: http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/facilities-installations/pbs-sbp/index-eng.htm.http://www.praqua.com/filtration.html. Their customers include Marine Harvest, Big Tree, for instance, Target, Israel, 100 tonne, Tilapia, small commercial. Chile, with MH. Grey Wolf in Sechelt. Redfish Ranch, Courtenay, 100 tonne tilapia, needing 28 degree water, ie 95% recirculating, since 2001).
28. Billund Aquakultur – Denmark – recirculating, closed, on-land, many species. A modular system, increasing plant size by adding discrete, water isolated, tanks. 300 ton eels, since 1984, but can be higher. Fresh water: Eel, Trout, Salmon, Sturgeon, Tilapia, Carps, Sea water: Sea bass, Sea bream, Turbot, Cod, Groupers, Snappers Cobia and Shrimps. Site: http://www.billund-aqua.dk/eng/eng.html. Images of plant components.
29. Sea Farm – Netherlands, Adri Bout, on-land, recirculating, 100 tons turbot. Highrise system of eight high, six inches deep. Uses waste for fertilizer, gravity runs the water down the raceways, not suitable for salmon – too shallow.